Nsukka is a town and Local Government Area in South-East Nigeria in Enugu State. Towns that share a common border with Nsukka, are Eha alumona, Edem,Alor-uno, Opi (archaeological site), Orba and Ede-Oballa, Obukpa, Obimo. Other nearby towns include Enugu Ezike, Obollo-Afor (formerly centre of the palm oil trade), Nimbo, Adani, Uzo Uwani and Mkpologwu, now also lay claim to the name Nsukka. This is because they all collectively fall into the political zoning system in Nigeria known as Senatorial Zone. As of 2006 Nsukka had a population of 309,633. Nsukka Town is known as the site of the University of Nigeria, the first indigenous Nigerian university, founded by Dr. Nnamdi Azikiwe, first President of Nigeria. Currently the town has a number of Federal Parastatals in the university such as NABDA, CBSS, and the Energy Research Centre.
Nsukka LGA has an area of 1,810 km² and a population of 309,633 at the 2006 census. The Local Government Headquarters is located in the hilly and green sites which Nsukka is known for close to colonial quarters of the pre-Independence years. The present Chairman of the Local Government Area council caretaker committee is Prof Roseline Onah who assumed leadership in early 2016.
The postal code of the area is 410001 and 410002 respectively referring to University of Nigeria Campus, and Nsukka Urban.
Nsukka is home to members of the Igbo ethnic group. Little is known about the history of Nsukka town except that the Kingdom of Nri had contact with Nsukka in earlier periods. However, in the book ‘Igbo/Igala Borderland’ the ancient American writer traced the origin of Nsukka ton to the earlier traders from Arochukwu in the present Abia State, who initially rested and later settled down there. In July 1967, Nsukka was one of the first Biafran towns to be captured by the northern Nigerian forces during their so-called ‘police action’ at the outset of the Nigerian-Biafran War. This action, during which Nsukka’s university was burned down, created many refugees and contributed to the chaos and suffering inherent in this bloody conflict. Hon. Charles Kenechi Ugwu is the new chairman of Nsukka local government, who assumed leadership in early January 2014.
According to Benjamin Chinweike Ezema (now called Ezemmah) Nsukka is a town that is made up of three prominent communities, namely the Nkpunanor community, the Ihe n’Owerre community and the Nru Nsukka community. Oral history has it that Nsukka has very close ties with three other neighbouring towns: Obukpa, Okpuje and Eha, which are said to have common ancestral origins. Nsukka, Obukpa, and Okpuje are siblings of Asadu Ideke Arumona; while the last – Eha is a patrilineal brother of the other three relations. The town is therefore called Eha-Alumona. Nsukka town has very ancient culture and traditions that are almost lost in antiquity due to the late awakening of the indigenes to the relevance and necessity of the pursuit of intellectual erudition and research. Each community is composed of many other smaller villages and clans.
A number of festivals are celebrated by the people of Nsukka, including the Omabe Masquerade Festival;the Onwa Eto, or Onwa Ito (the 3rd moon) Festival, which is characterised by the slaughtering of several fowls in each household for each child in the household and in memory of deceased family members; the Onwa Ise (the 5th moon Festival – which is also known as the moon that marks the beginning of the harvesting of yams (some people call it the New Yam Festival in English Language); Onwa Esa’a (the 7th moon Festival); the Onunu Festival which is characterised by the going to the ‘Nkwo’ market Arena (where the ‘Oromme’ Dance, traditional wrestling, etc., was performed); The Onwa Esa’a (the 7th Moon Festival) was noted as the period for the commencement of the eating of the dried cocoyam (Echicha). Of the numerous festivals by which Nsukka was known, only the Omabe festival is still being widely celebrated in the town.
Nsukka has some of the most recognised educational institutions in south-eastern Nigeria. St. Teresa’s College, Nsukka (all boys) is one of the oldest schools in Nsukka and is situated right at the heart of Nsukka township. It is run by the Catholic Church of Nsukka diocese. Queen of the Holy Rosary Secondary School is an all-girls school, also operated by the Catholic Church of Nsukka diocese. Nsukka High School is a public (government-run) school with Anglican Church heritage. Model Secondary School, Nsukka, is a day school for male and female students. Its Nigerian postal address is: P.O. Box 551, Nsukka. It has Mr. Ezeah as its current principal. St Cyprian’s Special Science School Nsukka is an all-science boarding school for girls. There is also the Urban Girls Secondary School, Federal Government Girls’ College Lejja Nsukka, which a federal government-owned girls’ school. University of Nigeria Secondary School belongs to the university and is also top notch. St Catherine Secondary School (all girls) also operated by the catholic church of nsukka diocese and is located very close to the St Teresa’s Cathedral Nsukka Diocese. There is also Government Technical College, Nsukka located in Nguru, one of the four villages in Nkpunanor. Nguru is the traditional head of Nsukka town and therefore the first amongst the villages in Nsukka when it comes to selection or choosing things, including the kola nut.