Gusau is a city and Local Government Area located in northwestern Nigeria. It is the capital of Zamfara State.
Gusau sits just north of a line drawn from Kebbe to Kano, and has an estimated population of 147,404. Its population is mostly Hausa with some Fulani, Yoruba, Igbo, Igala etc.
Gusau City was one of the ancient city since 16 century when the fulani migrated to hausa land in search of Islamic knowledge and other business activities, such as livestockthat time, Gobir was the only empire in Hausa land, was one of the seven original kingdoms of Hausa land. Its capital was the city of Alkalawa. In the early 19th century elements of the ruling dynasty fled north to what is today Niger from which a rival dynasty ruling as Sarkin Gobir (Sultan of Gobir), at that time the family of Danfodio came to the Gobir Empire in Daqyal for islamic propagation,at that time the zamfara fulani started searching of islamic knowledge from Danfodio such zamfara fulani are Alibawa under the umbrela of Abu Hamidu from kiyawa now Kaura Namoda Local Government Area up to moriki, And Fulani Yandotawa from Yandotaon Daji Under the umbrella of Mallan Mustapha now Tsafe Local Government Area up to Bungudu Under the umbrella of Mallan Zubairu.Yandoto Daji was one of Business center at that time, people from Eastern Nigeria are residing in Yandoton Daji before proceeding to their journey which course the burst of economic activities (i.e Trans-Saharan Trade ) in the town where by people different languages are found there,this also detriment the the town to be a center of Islamic Knowledge like Jami ah (i.e University) at that time where by people from different angle are coming to the Yandoton Daji in search of knowledge,The first settlement in Yandoton Daji was Habe meas Katsinawa da hausawa only. Sarkin Katsina Korau attended the institution at that time, Gusau Dynasty(i.e Katsin Laka, that is Ta Sambo Dan Ashafa, GUSAU TA MALLAN SAMBO and Katsina Dyanasty(i.e Katsin Maradi, that is Katsina Dikko) are in the same territory since before jihad conquer Yandoton Daji in 1805, that is why the Gusau Dynasty are named Sarkin katsinan Gusau, in Hausa the called it “GUSAU ta Mallan Sambo kowazo Gusau Abinai Ya Gusau” Means in English “Gusau belong to Mallan Sambo, any body came to Gusau he will achieve”, Gusau Word was drive from the word “Move” means “Gusa” Many Historian has categorically describe this word (eg ADAM SMITH “African Society and Culture”) “There are some Town and villages formed as Military Garrison and center of learning during the European conquest and Jihad e.g Kaura, Bungudu, Gada and Yandoto Daji”
When Mallan Muhammadu Sambo Danashafa and his family members return back from Shehu Usman Danfodio to declare his support to Shehu Usman Danfodio, there is misunderstanding between Habe from Yandoton Daji and Shehu Usman Danfodio , Mallan Ummaru and Ashafa are the two fathers of Sambo, Mallan Ummaru and Ashafa left Yandoto Daji to Katsina where Mallan Ummaru died there while Mallan Ashafa left kastina to Cediya where he died all becouse of this problems, this lead to Mallan Muhammadu Sambo Danashafa and his followers to migrate near kotarkoshi or Gulbin Sokoto because of Islamic propagation, our security,to get water, to do farms and our cattle and also to preferred our self for the jihad, Mallan Muhammadu Sambo Danashafa founded GUSAU TOWN IN 1799, Gusau is one of the town where the followers of Mallan Sambo settle for the preparation of jihad against Yandoton Daji becouse their has refused accept the teaching of Shehu Usman Danfodio
Gusau is a town which the people in the town are very proud of the town recourse of the islamic religious background in which the follower of Mallan Shehu Uthman Danfodio founded whose name is Mallan Muhammadu Sambo Danashafa, just like other hausa land that are proud of the founding fathers of their land, Mallan Muhammadu Sambo Danashafa has receive the flag of islam in Gada town from Sarkin Musulmi Muhammadu Bello to declare jihad against these that refuse to accept the jihad of Shehu Uthman Danfodio and he succeeded in jihad with Yandoton Daji and founded the Empire of Mallan Sambo Dan Ashafa in 1806. In another contribution from Sokoto History Bureau said that Gusau town was originated during the Jihad of Uthman Danfodio after Alwasa war, Shehu Uthman Danfodio has order his son Muhammadu Bello and Sarkin yaki Aliyu jedo to help Mallan Sambo Dan Ashafa to enhance the Jihad of Danfodio in the Eastern Sokoto, at that time he invite the leaders of that zone who accepted the Jihad of Danfodio in Gada Town Now Bungudu LGA to give them a speeches and receive their Islamic flag, these leaders are:-
1. Mallan Sulaiman Dan Aba Hamma Kano
2. Ummaru Dallejan Katsina
3. Mallan Yakubu Bauchi
4. Mallan Isiyaku Daura
5. Mallan Adama Adamawa
6. Mallan Musa Zaria
7. Mallan Daudu Nufe
8. Mallan Ibrahim Zaki Katagun
9. Musa Sambo Hadeja
10. Mallan Gwani Mukhtar Misau
11. Mallan Dan Tanku Kazaure
12. Mallan Alim Ilorin
13. Aliyu Jodi Binji
14. Maijo Kebbi Yabo
15. Abu Hamidu Zamfara Arewa
16. Namoda Kiyawa
17. Muhammadu Tukur Matuzgi
18. Sambo Dan Ashafa Yandoton Daji
Mallan Sambo based on the authority given to him to meet with the Yandoto which are Islamic scholars at that time to accept the Jihad of Sheik Usman Danfodio but their could not agree with him, they said even Danfodio not even Muhammadu Bello their leaders they pray to God should not see him. This is the beginning of the war with Yandoto, after the war ended, Mallan Mohammadu Bellon Nominate Mallan Sambo Danshafa as a Khalipha of Yandoton daji besed on the instruction given to him from Sheik Uthman Danfodio.
After the successful establishment of Yandoto Caliphate, Mallan Sambo Danashafa has suffered a lot of setback and attack from Yandotawa where people from Maradi are attacking him which result the migration to Yar-Gusau , Gulbin Sokoto 25Km from Yandoton Daji together with his followers and this mark the origination of Gusau Town in which since that time up till date Gusau Town is receiving tremendous achievement.
The Government of the defunct Northern Region stationed on Assistant Administrative Zonal Offices to cater for the area. Native authority branch offices were found by Sokoto Native Authority at Gusau, this arrangement was only terminated in 1976 when Local Governments were created. The persistent prayers of Zamfara people was finally answered on 1st October 1996, THE MAKING OF ZAMFARA STATE AND THE CAPITAL IS GUSAU BY FORMER HEAD OF STATE GENERAL SANI ABACHA, This also resulted burst of economic, infrastructural and social development in Gusau Town.